Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005. The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google releases the Android code as open-source, under the Apache License. TheAndroid Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.
Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone platform worldwide
Acquisition by Google
Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google Inc. Key employees of Android Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time of the acquisition, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.
Open Handset Alliance
On December 9, 2008, 14 new members joined, including ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Huawei Technologies,PacketVideo, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp, and Vodafone Group Plc
The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. There is support for x86 from the Android x86project, and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android.
Handset layouts :
Multiple language support :
Supports A2DP, AVRCP, sending files (OPP), accessing the phone book (PBAP), voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.
Video calling :
FEATURES OF ANDROID OS :-
It is used to write applications for Android.
Dalvik Virtual Machine:-
It is extremely low-memory based virtual machine, which was designed especially for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations.
It has an Web Kit as open source web browser.
- . It has a great Graphical Interface.
- • Integrated (web kit) browser
- • 2D and 3D graphics APIs with HW
- • SQLite
- • Video and audio codecs
- • Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and WiFi
- • Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer
Cellular networking : GSM, EDGE, 3G (hardware dependent)
LAN : Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (hardware dependent)
Graphics Hardware Acceleration
Camera, GPS and Compass (hardware dependent)
Touch screen and accelerometer for motion sensing
Integrated browser based on the open source Web Kit engine
SQLite for relational data storage
Media support for common audio, video, and still image formats
(MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF)
Dalvik Virtual Machine optimized for mobile devices :
While Android is designed primarily for smartphones and tablets, the open and customizable nature of the operating system allows it to be used on other electronics, including laptops and netbooks, smartbooks, andebook readers. Further, Google intends to bring Android to televisions with Google TV, and the OS has seen applications on wristwatches,headphones, car CD and DVD players, smart glasses, refrigerators, vehicle satnav systems, home automation systems, cameras, games consoles, mirrors, digital cameras, portable media players andlandlines.
The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on 22 October 2008. In early 2010 Google collaborated with HTC to launch its flagship Android device, theNexus One. This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsung-made Nexus S and in 2011 with the Galaxy Nexus.
iOS and Android 2.3.3 'Gingerbread' may be set up to dual boot on a jailbroken iPhone or iPod Touch with the help ofOpeniBoot and iDroid.
In December 2011 it was announced the Pentagon has officially approved Android for use by its personnel
Android Software Development (SDK)
Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for the Android operating system. Applications are usually developed in the Java programming language using the Android Software Development Kit, but other development tools are available.
Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the operating system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, Play Store displays all required permissions. A game may need to enable vibration, for example, but should not need to read messages or access the phonebook. After reviewing these permissions, the user can decide whether to install the application.
Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid, an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.
In March 2012 it was revealed that Android Apps can copy photos without explicit user permission, Google responded they "originally designed the Android photos file system similar to those of other computing platforms like Windows and Mac OS. [...] we're taking another look at this and considering adding a permission for apps to access images. We've always had policies in place to remove any apps on Android Market that improperly access your data
The Android logo was designed along with the Droid font family made by Ascender Corporation.
Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Android operating system. The print color is PMS 376C and the RGB color value in hexadecimal is #A4C639, as specified by the Android Brand Guidelines. The custom typeface of Android is called Norad (cf. NORAD). It is only used in the text logo.
• Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system.
• It is developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance.
• It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
• An open platform for developers, users & industry.
• Android is open source/free software
Android allows you to access core mobile device functionality through standard API calls.
2) All applications are equal:-
Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications -- even the dialer or home screen can be replaced.
3) Breaking down boundaries:-
Combine information from the web with data on the phone -- such as contacts or geographic location -- to create new user experiences.
4) Fast and easy development:-
The SDK contains what you need to build and run Android applications, including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.
Making source code available to everyone inevitably invites the attention of black hat hackers.
2) Open Source:-
A disadvantage of open-source development is that anyone can scrutinize the source code to find vulnerabilities and write exploits.
Platform doesn't run on an encrypted file system and has a vulnerable log-in.
The dependence on hardware and carrier partners puts the final product out of their control.
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS :
1. Android Emulator -A virtual mobile device that runs on our computer -use to design, debug, and test our applications in an actual Android run-time environment
1. Android Development Tools Plugin -for the Eclipse IDE - adds powerful extensions to the Eclipse integrated environment
1. Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (DDMS) -Integrated with Dalvik -this tool let us manage processes on an emulator and assists in debugging
Participating in many of the successful open source projects
Aims to be as easy to build for as the web.
Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet
Download Android PPT Here